The diverse enteric viral communities that infect microbes and the animal host collectively constitute the gut virome. Although recent advances in sequencing and analysis of metaviromes have revealed the complexity of the virome and facilitated discovery of new viruses, our understanding of the enteric virome is still incomplete. Recent studies have uncovered how virome–host interactions can contribute to beneficial or detrimental outcomes for the host. Understanding the complex interactions between enteric viruses and the intestinal immune system is a prerequisite for elucidating their role in intestinal diseases. In this review, we provide an overview of the enteric virome composition and summarize recent findings about how enteric viruses are sensed by and, in turn, modulate host immune responses during homeostasis and disease.

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