The cell-cycle status of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) becomes activated following chemotherapy-induced stress, promoting bone marrow (BM) regeneration; however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here we show that BM-resident group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) support the recovery of HSPCs from 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)–induced stress by secreting granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Mechanistically, IL-33 released from chemo-sensitive B cell progenitors activates MyD88-mediated secretion of GM-CSF in ILC2, suggesting the existence of a B cell–ILC2 axis for maintaining hematopoietic homeostasis. GM-CSF knockout mice treated with 5-FU showed severe loss of myeloid lineage cells, causing lethality, which was rescued by transferring BM ILC2s from wild-type mice. Further, the adoptive transfer of ILC2s to 5-FU–treated mice accelerates hematopoietic recovery, while the reduction of ILC2s results in the opposite effect. Thus, ILC2s may function by “sensing” the damaged BM spaces and subsequently support hematopoietic recovery under stress conditions.

This article is distributed under the terms of an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike–No Mirror Sites license for the first six months after the publication date (see After six months it is available under a Creative Commons License (Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 4.0 International license, as described at
You do not currently have access to this content.