We report that combination bNAb immunotherapy initiated on day 3 post-infection (PI) maintained durable CD8+ T cell–mediated suppression of SHIVAD8 viremia and preinoculation levels of CD4+ T cells in 9 of 13 treated monkeys during nearly 6 yr of observation, as assessed by successive CD8+ T cell–depletion experiments. In an extension of that study, two treatment interventions (bNAbs alone or cART plus bNAbs) beginning on week 2 PI were conducted and conferred controller status to 7 of 12 monkeys that was also dependent on control mediated by CD8+ cells. However, the median time to suppression of plasma viremia following intervention on week 2 was markedly delayed (85 wk) compared with combination bNAb immunotherapy initiated on day 3 (39 wk). In both cases, the principal correlate of virus control was the induction of CD8+ T cellular immunity.
Immunotherapy during the acute SHIV infection of macaques confers long-term suppression of viremia
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Yoshiaki Nishimura, Olivia K. Donau, Joana Dias, Sara Ferrando-Martinez, Eric Jesteadt, Reza Sadjadpour, Rajeev Gautam, Alicia Buckler-White, Romas Geleziunas, Richard A. Koup, Michel C. Nussenzweig, Malcolm A. Martin; Immunotherapy during the acute SHIV infection of macaques confers long-term suppression of viremia. J Exp Med 4 January 2021; 218 (1): e20201214. doi: https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20201214
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