Whereas T cells have been considered the major immune cells of the tumor microenvironment able to induce tumor regression and control cancer clinical outcome, a burst of recent publications pointed to the fact that B cells may also play a prominent role. Activated in germinal centers of tertiary lymphoid structures, B cells can directly present tumor-associated antigens to T cells or produce antibodies that increase antigen presentation to T cells or kill tumor cells, resulting in a beneficial clinical impact. Immune complexes can also increase inflammation, angiogenesis, and immunosuppression via macrophage and complement activation, resulting in deleterious impact.

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