Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is accompanied by a robust inflammatory response mediated by plaque-associated myeloid cells of the brain. These cells exhibit altered gene expression profiles and serve as a barrier, preventing neuritic dystrophy. The origin of these cells has been controversial and is of therapeutic importance. Here, we genetically labeled different myeloid populations and unequivocally demonstrated that plaque-associated myeloid cells in the AD brain are derived exclusively from resident microglia, with no contribution from circulating peripheral monocytes.

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