Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are tissue-resident cells prominent at barrier sites. Although precursors are found in blood, mature ILC2s can enter the circulation after small intestinal perturbation by migratory helminths and move to distant tissues to influence the local reparative response. Using fate-mapping and methods to bypass the lung or intestinal phases of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection, we show that blood ILC2s comprise heterogeneous populations derived from distinct tissues that are dependent on alarmins matched to the receptor profile of the specific tissue ILC2s. Activation of local ILC2s by tissue-specific alarmins induced their proliferation, lymph node migration, and blood dissemination, thus systemically distributing type 2 cytokines. These studies uncover a possible mechanism by which local innate responses transition to systemic type 2 responses by extrusion of activated sentinel ILC2s from tissue into the circulation.
Tissue-specific pathways extrude activated ILC2s to disseminate type 2 immunity
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Roberto R. Ricardo-Gonzalez, Christoph Schneider, Chang Liao, Jinwoo Lee, Hong-Erh Liang, Richard M. Locksley; Tissue-specific pathways extrude activated ILC2s to disseminate type 2 immunity. J Exp Med 6 April 2020; 217 (4): e20191172. doi: https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20191172
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