Increasing evidence has challenged the traditional view about the immune privilege of the brain, but the precise roles of immune cells in regulating brain physiology and function remain poorly understood. Here, we report that tissue-resident group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) accumulate in the choroid plexus of aged brains. ILC2 in the aged brain are long-lived, are relatively resistant to cellular senescence and exhaustion, and are capable of switching between cell cycle dormancy and proliferation. They are functionally quiescent at homeostasis but can be activated by IL-33 to produce large amounts of type 2 cytokines and other effector molecules in vitro and in vivo. Intracerebroventricular transfer of activated ILC2 revitalized the aged brain and enhanced the cognitive function of aged mice. Administration of IL-5, a major ILC2 product, was sufficient to repress aging-associated neuroinflammation and alleviate aging-associated cognitive decline. Targeting ILC2 in the aged brain may provide new avenues to combat aging-associated neurodegenerative disorders.

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