Macrophages are part of the innate immune system and are present in every organ of the body. They fulfill critical roles in tissue homeostasis and development and are involved in various pathologies. An essential factor for the development, homeostasis, and function of mononuclear phagocytes is the colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R), which has two known ligands: CSF-1 and interleukin-34 (IL-34). While CSF-1 has been extensively studied, the biology and functions of IL-34 are only now beginning to be uncovered. In this review, we discuss recent advances of IL-34 biology in health and disease with a specific focus on mononuclear phagocytes.

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