All hematopoietic lineages are derived from a limited pool of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Although the mechanisms underlying HSC self-renewal have been extensively studied, little is known about the role of protein glutamylation and deglutamylation in hematopoiesis. Here, we show that carboxypeptidase CCP3 is most highly expressed in BM cells among CCP members. CCP3 deficiency impairs HSC self-renewal and hematopoiesis. Deubiquitinase BAP1 is a substrate for CCP3 in HSCs. BAP1 is glutamylated at Glu651 by TTLL5 and TTLL7, and BAP1-E651A mutation abrogates BAP1 glutamylation. BAP1 glutamylation accelerates its ubiquitination to trigger its degradation. CCP3 can remove glutamylation of BAP1 to promote its stability, which enhances Hoxa1 expression, leading to HSC self-renewal. Bap1E651A mice produce higher numbers of LT-HSCs and peripheral blood cells. Moreover, TTLL5 and TTLL7 deficiencies sustain BAP1 stability to promote HSC self-renewal and hematopoiesis. Therefore, glutamylation and deglutamylation of BAP1 modulate HSC self-renewal and hematopoiesis.

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