Autoantibodies to transglutaminase 2 (TG2) are hallmarks of celiac disease. To address B cell tolerance and autoantibody formation to TG2, we generated immunoglobulin knock-in (Ig KI) mice that express a prototypical celiac patient–derived anti-TG2 B cell receptor equally reactive to human and mouse TG2. We studied B cell development in the presence/absence of autoantigen by crossing the Ig KI mice to Tgm2−/− mice. Autoreactive B cells in Tgm2+/+ mice were indistinguishable from their naive counterparts in Tgm2−/− mice with no signs of clonal deletion, receptor editing, or B cell anergy. The autoreactive B cells appeared ignorant to their antigen, and they produced autoantibodies when provided T cell help. The findings lend credence to a model of celiac disease where gluten-reactive T cells provide help to autoreactive TG2-specific B cells by involvement of gluten–TG2 complexes, and they outline a general mechanism of autoimmunity with autoantibodies being produced by ignorant B cells on provision of T cell help.
B cell tolerance and antibody production to the celiac disease autoantigen transglutaminase 2
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M. Fleur du Pré, Jana Blazevski, Alisa E. Dewan, Jorunn Stamnaes, Chakravarthi Kanduri, Geir Kjetil Sandve, Marie K. Johannesen, Christian B. Lindstad, Kathrin Hnida, Lars Fugger, Gerry Melino, Shuo-Wang Qiao, Ludvig M. Sollid; B cell tolerance and antibody production to the celiac disease autoantigen transglutaminase 2. J Exp Med 3 February 2020; 217 (2): e20190860. doi: https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20190860
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