The nucleoids of microbodies of rat liver cells were isolated in a highly homogeneous and pure state, by treating the microbody-rich fraction, prepared from 10% polyvinylpyrrolidone-0.25 M sucrose homogenate, with Triton X-100. Three treatments with 0.1% detergent were enough to render the nucleoids free from contamination with mitochondria, microsomes, lysosomes, and intact microbodies. Electron microscopically, the nucleoids were found to consist of parallel bundles of highly dense hollow tubules, the outer and inner diameters of which are approximately 150 and 50 A, respectively. Ten tubules are arranged around a longitudinal space 190 x 200 A in width. The nucleoids thus show a honeycomb appearance in the cross-plane and a parallel-packed structure in the longitudinal plane. Biochemically, the nucleoids were found to bear only urate oxidase among probably microbody-enzymes, and they might be the only cytoplasmic particles of rat liver cells in which the enzyme locates. Urate oxidase activity, on a unit protein basis, of the nucleoid preparation is approximately 380 times as high as that of the whole homogenate, and is almost comparable with that of a commercial type I enzyme preparation. No enzymes of mitochondrial, microsomal, and lysosomal origins were detected in the nucleoids. The fine structure of the nucleoids is described in detail, and a probable schematic diagram is presented.