Distribution of [Na+,K+]ATPase on the cell surface of canine hepatocytes was investigated quantitatively by incubating prefixed and dissociated liver cells with ferritin antibody conjugates against canine kidney holo[Na+,K+]ATPase. We found that [Na+,K+]-ATPase exists bilaterally both on the bile canalicular and sinusoid-lateral surfaces. The particle density on the bile canalicular surface was much higher (approximately 2.5 times) than that on the sinusoid-lateral surface. In the latter region, the enzyme was detected almost equally both on the sinusoidal and lateral surfaces. On all the surfaces, the distribution of the enzyme was homogeneous and no clustering of the enzyme was detected. Total number of the enzyme on the sinusoid-lateral surface was, however, approximately three times higher than that on the bile canalicular region, because the sinusoid-lateral surface represents approximately 87% of the total cell surface of a hepatocyte. We suggest that the [Na+, K+]ATPase on the bile canalicular surface is responsible for the bile acid-independent bile flow and the other transport processes on the bile canalicular cell surface, while that on the sinusoid-lateral surface is responsible not only for the active transport of Na+ but also for the secondary active transport of various substances in this region.
Induction of cytochrome P-450s by 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) and phenobarbital (PB) and distribution of P-450s in the rat liver nuclear envelope were investigated by biochemical analyses and ferritin immunoelectron microscopy using specific antibodies against the major molecular species of MC- and PB-induced cytochrome P-450. It was found, in agreement with Kasper (J. Biol. Chem., 1971, 246: 577-581), that the total amount of cytochrome P-450s determined by biochemical analysis was markedly increased by MC, but not by PB, treatment. Immunoelectron microscopic analysis, however, showed marked and slight increases in ferritin labeling by MC and PB treatment, respectively. The latter finding was interpreted as resulting from the induction of a particular molecular species of PB-induced cytochrome P-450s. Ferritin immunoelectron microscopic analysis of intact isolated nuclei, naked nuclei from which the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope was partially detached (mechanically), and isolated nuclear envelopes have shown that the ferritin particles are found exclusively on the cytoplasmic face of the outer nuclear envelopes. Neither the nucleoplasmic face of the inner membrane of the nuclear envelope nor the cisternal face of both membranes of the nuclear envelope showed any labeling with ferritin. This indicates that cytochrome P-450 is located only on the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope and does not diffuse laterally into the domain of the inner membrane of the nuclear envelope across the nuclear pores. Our results suggest that a marked heterogeneity exists in the enzyme distribution between the outer and inner membrane of the nuclear envelope and that microsomal marker enzymes such as cytochrome P-450 exist exclusively in the outer membrane. In addition, it appears that cytochrome P-450 is probably not a transmembrane protein but an intrinsic protein located on the cytoplasmic face of the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope.