When cells of C. columnaris were broken open, treated with PTA, and examined in the electron microscope, tubular structures (rhapidosomes) were present in the preparations. The rhapidosomes are approximately 300 A in diameter. Their length varies from about 500 to about 15,000 A. An axial hole which runs the length of the rhapidosomes appears to widen and narrow with a regular periodicity. End-on views of short segments of rhapidosomes revealed the presence of subunits around their outside peripheries. The results of studies of lysed cells and of sectioned cells indicate that the rhapidosomes are produced during the disintegration of cells. It seems likely that the compound membranes of the mesosomes break down to give rise to the tubular structures. The mesosomal origin of rhapidosomes is postulated only for the rhapidosomes of C. columnaris , since the origin of rhapidosomes from other organisms was not investigated during this study. The rhapidosomes of C. columnaris may be unrelated to those of S. grandis, S. myxococcoides, A. violaceum , and Sorangium 495, since there was a difference in the details of fine structure between rhapidosomes from C. columnaris and those found in the other four organisms.