On the cover
Jones et al. reveal the structure of the axon initial segment in cultured hippocampal neurons. Platinum replica electron microscopy shows the organization of spectrin βIV (purple, detected by immunogold labeling in yellow), microtubules (cyan), ankyrin G (red), clathrin-coated vesicles (orange), and other cytoskeletal components (gray).
Image © 2014 Jones et al.
See page 67.
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Ca2+–Calmodulin regulates SNARE assembly and spontaneous neurotransmitter release via v-ATPase subunit V0a1
Ca2+–Calmodulin binding to neuronal v-ATPase V0 subunit a1 (V100) regulates SNARE complex assembly for a putative subset of synaptic vesicles that sustain spontaneous release in Drosophila.
Coordinated binding of Vps4 to ESCRT-III drives membrane neck constriction during MVB vesicle formation
Vps4 both recycles ESCRT-III subunits and cooperates with ESCRT-III to drive distinct membrane remodeling steps that lead to efficient membrane scission during the biogenesis of multivesicular bodies.
Signal peptide binding modulates assembly of chloroplast Tha4 onto the twin-arginine translocase cpTatC subunit to assemble a functional protein-conducting pore.
Axon initial segment cytoskeleton comprises a multiprotein submembranous coat containing sparse actin filaments
The axon initial segment of differentiated neurons contains a dense submembranous cytoskeleton that overlays microtubule bundles and includes two sparse actin populations: short, stable actin filaments and longer, dynamic non-oriented filaments.
A contractile actomyosin meshwork at the top of a cell is mechanically coupled to dorsal actin fibers that are anchored via focal adhesions to the cell surface, generating a counterbalanced adhesion/contraction system that drives cell shape changes.
In addition to stimulating skeletal muscle growth and repair, Wnt7a/Fzd7 signaling increases the polarity and directional migration of myogenic progenitors and improves the efficacy of muscle stem cell therapy.
Characterization of a new biosensor for PtdIns4P reveals a wider cellular distribution for the polyphosphoinositide than the Golgi localization reported previously, including pools in both the plasma membrane and late endosomes/lysosomes.