To study the assembly of newly synthesized lipids with apoprotein A1, we administered [2-3H]glycerol to young chickens and determined the hepatic intracellular sites of lipid synthesis and association of nascent lipids with apoprotein A1. [2-3H]glycerol was rapidly incorporated into hepatic lipids, reaching maximal levels at 5 min, and this preceded the appearance of lipid radioactivity in the plasma. The liver was fractionated into rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi cell fractions. The isolated cell fractions were further subfractionated into membrane and soluble (content) fractions by treatment with 0.1 M Na2CO3, pH 11.3. At various times, the lipid radioactivity was measured in each of the intracellular organelles, in immunoprecipitable apoprotein A1, and in materials that floated at buoyant densities similar to those of plasma lipoproteins. Maximal incorporation occurred at 1 min in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, at 3-5 min in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and at 5 min in the Golgi cell fractions. The majority (66-93%) of radioactive glycerol was incorporated into triglycerides with smaller (4-27%) amounts into phospholipids. About 80% of the lipid radioactivity in the endoplasmic reticulum and 70% of that in the Golgi cell fractions was in the membranes. The radioactive lipids in the content subfraction were distributed in various density classes with most nascent lipids floating at a density less than or equal to 1.063 g/ml. Apoprotein A1 from the Golgi apparatus, obtained by immunoprecipitation, contained sixfold more nascent lipids than did that from the endoplasmic reticulum. These data indicate that [2-3H]glycerol is quickly incorporated into lipids of the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi cell fractions, that most of the nascent lipids are conjugated with apoproteins A1 in the Golgi apparatus, and that very little association of nascent lipid to apoprotein A1 occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum.

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