The effect of x-irradiation on grasshopper spermatogenesis was studied with the aid of light and electron microscopy. The insects were irradiated at the second instar prior to the presence of maturation stages and observed at the last instar and imago stages. Dosages of 100 to 600 roentgens were found to retard the differentiation of the nucleus and mitochondrial nebenkern in spermatids. Evidence is presented that irradiation causes a curtailment and disorganization in the differentiation of the nebenkern from mitochondria. The above doses also induced the formation of supernumerary centrioles, flagellar filaments and acrosomes; nuclear disorganization as well as pycnosis and fragmentation also occur. The nucleus appears to be drawn toward each radiation-induced supernumerary acrosome, with consequent multipolarity of the nucleus. Induction of a set of flagellar filaments is seen only where the centriolar structure is in contact with the nucleus. Details are given of an organelle, heretofore not described, that is composed of anastomosed and interwoven cytoplasmic strands.

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