Immunocytochemical techniques have localized a large protein which is an intrinsic membrane component of isolated frog rod outer segments (ROS). This large protein whose apparent mol wt is 290,000 daltons comprises about 1--3% of the ROS membrane mass. Its molar ratio to opsin is between 1:300 and 1:900. Adequate immune responses were obtained with less than 30 microgram (100 pmol) of antigen per rabbit. Antibodies to the large protein were used for its localization on thin sections of frog retina embedded in glutaraldehyde cross-linked bovine serum albumin (BSA). Specifically bound antibodies were detected by an indirect sequence with ferritin-conjugated antibodies. This technique detected the protein which is represented by 1,000--3,000 molecules per disk. This indicates that the procedure is sufficiently sensitive for analysis of membrane components in low molar proportions. The large protein was specifically localized to the incisures of ROS disks which divide the disks into lobes and to the disk margin. Thus, opsin is mobile within the membrane of the disk while the large protein is apparently constrained to the disk edges. This finding raises the possibility that special functions are also localized ot his unusual region of high curvature, and that collisions of bleached opsin with these edges are physiologically important in couter segment function.

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