The cell cycle program of polypeptide labeling in syndhronous cultures of wild-type Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was analyzed by pulse-labeling cells with 35SO4 = or [3H]arginine at different cell cycle stages. Nearly 100 labeled membrane and soluble polypeptides were resolved and studied using one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The labeling experiments produced the following results. (a) Total 35SO4 = and [3H]arginine incorporation rates varied independently throughout the cell cycle. 35SO4 = incorporation was highest in the mid-light phase, while [3H]arginine incorporation peaked in the dark phase just before cell division. (b) The relative labeling rate for 20 of 100 polypeptides showed significant fluctuations (3-12 fold) during the cell cycle. The remaining polypeptides were labeled at a rate commensurate with total 35SO4 = or [3H]arginine incorporation. The polypeptides that showed significant fluctuations in relative labeling rates served as markers to identify cell cycle stages. (c) The effects of illumination conditions on the apparent cell cycle stage-specific labeling of polypeptides were tested. Shifting light-grown asynchronous cells to the dark had an immediate and pronounced effect on the pattern of polypeptide labeling, but shifting dark-phase syndhronous cells to the light had little effect. The apparent cell cycle variations in the labeling of ribulose 1,5-biphosphate (RUBP)-carboxylase were strongly influenced by illumination effects. (d) Pulse-chase experiments with light-grown asynchronous cells revealed little turnover or inter-conversion of labeled polypeptides within one cell generation, meaning that major polypeptides, whether labeled in a stage-specific manner or not, do not appear transiently in the cell cycle of actively dividing, light-grown cells. The cell cycle program of labeling was used to analyze effects of a temperature-sensitive cycle blocked (cb) mutant. A synchronous culture of ts10001 was shifted to restrictive temperature before its block point to prevent it from dividing. The mutant continued its cell cycle program of polypeptide labeling for over a cell generation, despite its inability to divide.

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