The restitution of RNA synthesis in cultures progressing from metaphase into interphase (G1) has been investigated in synchronized HeLa S3 cells by using inhibitors of macro-molecular synthesis and the technique of electron microscope autoradiography. The rate of incorporation of radioactive uridine into RNA approached interphase levels in the absence of renewed protein synthesis. In contrast, maintenance of this rate in G1 was dependent upon renewed protein synthesis. Restoration of synthesis of heterogeneous nuclear RNA occurred under conditions that inhibited production of ribosomal precursor RNA. In autoradiographs of individual cells exposed to radioactive uridine, silver grains were first detected after nuclear envelope reformation at the periphery of the chromosome mass but before chromosomal decondensation. These data are consistent with the following interpretation. Multiple RNA polymerase activities persist through mitosis and are involved in the initiation of RNA synthesis in early telophase at sites on the nuclear envelope.

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