The in vitro regression of experimentally induced chromosome puffs was investigated in explanted salivary gland chromosomes of Drosophila hydei. It was observed that the regression of the puffs 2-32A, 2-36A, 2-48C, and 4-81B is accelerated if substrates for the respiratory metabolism are supplied to the cells. A similar effect can be produced by addition of KCN or oligomycin to medium in which intact salivary glands are incubated. The acceleration of puff regression by these substances occurs not only if the puff-inducing stimulus is removed but as well under conditions in which the stimulus is maintained. Regression of the puffs 2-32A, 2-36A, and 4-81B is inhibited if cycloheximide is present in the incubation medium. Chloramphenicol has no effect on puff regression. Measurements on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dehydrogenase activity in homogenates of salivary glands revealed an increase in enzyme activity of 41 %. Maximum increase is attained at 30 min after the induced puffs have reached their maximum size. The increase in enzyme activity does not occur if the glands are kept in a medium containing either actinomycin D or cycloheximide. Chloramphenicol does not inhibit the increase in enzyme activity. The possible relationship between puff activity and its control as a result of changes in the respiratory metabolism is discussed.

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