Several established clonal strains of rat pituitary cells which produce growth hormone in culture have been shown to secrete a second protein hormone, prolactin. Prolactin was measured immunologically in culture medium and within cells by complement fixation. Rates of prolactin production varied from 6.6 to 12 µg/mg cell protein per 24 hr in four different cell strains. In these cultures ratios of production of prolactin to growth hormone varied from 1.0 to 4.1. A fifth clonal strain produced growth hormone but no detectable prolactin. Intracellular prolactin was equivalent to the amount secreted into medium in a period of about 1–2 hr. Both cycloheximide and puromycin suppressed prolactin production by at least 94%. Hydrocortisone (3 x 10-6 M), which stimulated the production of growth hormone 4- to 8-fold in most of the cell strains, reduced the rate of prolactin production to less than 25% of that in control cultures. Conversely, addition of simple acid extracts of several tissues, including hypothalamus, to the medium of all strains increased the rate of production of prolactin six to nine times and decreased growth hormone production by about 50%. We conclude that multifunctional rat pituitary cells in culture show unusual promise for further studies of the control of expression of organ-specific activities in mammalian cells.

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