A cytochemical and electron microscope study has been made of leaves of sugar beet infected with beet yellows virus. Inclusions of particles, which agree in size with beet yellows virus particles isolated by other investigators, have been localized in the ground cytoplasm, in the chloroplasts, and in the nuclei. These particles are circa 100 A in diameter and have an electron-transparent core of 30 to 40 A. Use of acridine orange, azure B, and pyronine Y has revealed that the cytoplasmic inclusion bodies, which consist wholly of the elongate particles, have a strong RNA reaction removable by RNase pretreatment. Particles observed in the chloroplasts may or may not be associated with lipid spheres. If they are, the particles are confined to the periphery of the spheres. In this position the particles are arranged tangentially and are further arranged parallel into groups which lie at various angles to one another. Within the groups the particles are regularly spaced in a three dimensional lattice. Particles located free in the stromal regions are often arranged regularly in curved rows which lie parallel to one another so that a three dimensional lattice is formed. The dispersed and compact forms of virus inclusions are described and related to the condition of the associated cytoplasm. The ground cytoplasm of cells associated with the sieve elements contains numerous ribosomes. A decrease in the number of ribosomes is concomitant with the increase in size of virus aggregations in a cell. Vesiculation of some component of the cytoplasm occurs during the period of virus replication. The vesicles are approximately 100 mµ in diameter and could be derived from the dictyosomes. At later stages of infection these vesicles collapse and convoluted membranous material appears.

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