The syntheses of histone, total protein, and DNA during the cell cycle were measured in the macronucleus of Euplotes eurystomus by assaying the incorporation of tritiated amino acids and tritiated thymidine in groups of 800 to 1000 synchronized cells. The synthesis of DNA begins at 30% completion of the cell cycle, proceeds at a constant rate, and ends very shortly before the beginning of macronuclear division. Histone labeling is absent during G1, begins in phase with DNA synthesis, continues at an unchanging rate during the S phase, and ends with the completion of DNA synthesis. The results support the view that the syntheses of histone and DNA are closely coupled events. Label in total protein accumulates at a constant rate during G1 and appears to shift to a slightly higher rate when histone synthesis begins. At division, radioactive DNA, histone, and total protein are distributed equally between the daughter macronuclei without loss of radioactivity. Radioautographic analysis showed that protein labeling occurs throughout the macronucleus during the entire life cycle. There was no clear difference in the degree of protein labeling between replicated and unreplicated regions of the macronucleus. The distribution of label suggests that most of macronuclear protein labeling during the cell cycle is concerned with the events of transcription rather than replication.

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