We have recently identified a novel 190-kD calmodulin-binding protein (p190) associated with the actin-based cytoskeleton from mammalian brain (Larson, R. E., D. E. Pitta, and J. A. Ferro. 1988. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 21:213-217; Larson, R. E., F. S. Espindola, and E. M. Espreafico. 1990. J. Neurochem. 54:1288-1294). These studies indicated that p190 is a phosphoprotein substrate for calmodulin-dependent kinase II and has calcium- and calmodulin-stimulated MgATPase activity. We now have biochemical and immunological evidence that this protein is a novel calmodulin-binding myosin whose properties include (a) Ca2+ dependent action activation of its Mg-ATPase activity, which seems to be mediated by Ca2+ binding directly to calmodulin(s) associated with p190 (maximal activation by actin requires the presence of Ca2+ and is further augmented by addition of exogenous calmodulin); (b) ATP-sensitive cross-linking of skeletal muscle F-actin, as demonstrated by the low-speed actin sedimentation assay; and (c) cross-reactivity with mAbs specific for epitopes in the head of brush border myosin I. We also show that p190 has properties distinct from conventional brain myosin II and brush border myosin I, including (a) separation of p190 from brain myosin II by gel filtration on a Sephacryl S-500 column; (b) lack by p190 of K(+)-stimulated EDTA ATPase activity characteristic of most myosins; (c) lack of immunological cross-reactivity of polyclonal antibodies which recognize p190 and brain myosin II, respectively; (d) lack of immunological recognition of p190 by mAbs against an epitope in the tail region of brush border myosin I; and (e) distinctive proteolytic susceptibility to calpain. A survey of rat tissues by immunoblotting indicated that p190 is expressed predominantly in the adult forebrain and cerebellum, and could be detected in embryos 11 d post coitus. Immunocytochemical studies showed p190 to be present in the perikarya and dendritic extensions of Purkinje cells of the cerebellum.

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