We have developed specific antibodies to synthetic peptide antigens that react with the individual subunits of casein kinase II (CKII). Using these antibodies, we studied the localization of CKII in asynchronous HeLa cells by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. Further studies were done on HeLa cells arrested at the G1/S transition by hydroxyurea treatment. Our results indicate that the CKII alpha and beta subunits are localized in the cytoplasm during interphase and are distributed throughout the cell during mitosis. Further electron microscopic investigation revealed that CKII alpha subunit is associated with spindle fibers during metaphase and anaphase. In contrast, the CKII alpha' subunit is localized in the nucleus during G1 and in the cytoplasm during S. Taken together, our results suggest that CKII may play significant roles in cell division control by shifting its localization between the cytoplasm and nucleus.

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