We have partially purified myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) from Dictyostelium discoideum. MLCK was purified 4,700-fold with a yield of approximately 1 mg from 350 g of cells. The enzyme is very acidic as suggested by its tight binding to DEAE. Dictyostelium MLCK has an apparent native molecular mass on HPLC G3000SW of approximately 30,000 D. Mg2+ is required for enzyme activity. Ca2+ inhibits activity and this inhibition is not relieved by calmodulin. cAMP or cGMP have no effect on enzyme activity. Dictyostelium MLCK is very specific for the 18,000-D light chain of Dictyostelium myosin and does not phosphorylate the light chain of several other myosins tested. Myosin purified from log-phase amebas of Dictyostelium has approximately 0.3 mol Pi/mol 18,000-D light chain as assayed by glycerol-urea gel electrophoresis. Dictyostelium MLCK can phosphorylate this myosin to a stoichiometry approaching 1 mol Pi/mol 18,000-D light chain. MLCP, which was partially purified, selectively removes phosphate from the 18,000-D light chain but not from the heavy chain of Dictyostelium myosin. Phosphatase-treated Dictyostelium myosin has less than or equal to 0.01 mol Pi/mol 18,000-D light chain. Phosphatase-treated myosin could be rephosphorylated to greater than or equal to 0.96 mol Pi/mol 18,000-D light chain by incubation with MLCK and ATP. We found myosin thick filament assembly to be independent of the extent of 18,000-D light-chain phosphorylation when measured as a function of ionic strength. However, actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity of Dictyostelium myosin was found to be directly related to the extent of phosphorylation of the 18,000-D light chain. MLCK-treated myosin moved in an in vitro motility assay (Sheetz, M. P., and J. A. Spudich, 1983, Nature (Lond.), 305:31-35) at approximately 1.4 micron/s whereas phosphatase-treated myosin moved only slowly or not at all. The effects of phosphatase treatment on the movement were fully reversed by subsequent treatment with MLCK.
Myosin light chain kinase and myosin light chain phosphatase from Dictyostelium: effects of reversible phosphorylation on myosin structure and function.
L M Griffith, S M Downs, J A Spudich; Myosin light chain kinase and myosin light chain phosphatase from Dictyostelium: effects of reversible phosphorylation on myosin structure and function.. J Cell Biol 1 May 1987; 104 (5): 1309–1323. doi: https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.104.5.1309
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