A particulate component of small dimensions (100 to 150 A) and high density is described in the ground substance of the cytoplasm of mammalian and avian cells.

In many cell types that seem to have in common a high degree of differentiation, the new component is preferentially associated with the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum; whereas in other cell types, characterized by rapid proliferation, it occurs more or less freely distributed in the ground substance of the cytoplasm.

In the Discussion an attempt is made to integrate the observations presented in this paper with the already available cytological, histochemical, and cytochemical information.

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