When Naegleria gruberi flagellates were extracted with nonionic detergent and stained by the indirect immunofluorescence method with AA-4.3 (a monoclonal antibody against Naegleria beta-tubulin), flagella and a network of cytoskeletal microtubules (CSMT) were seen. When Naegleria amebae were examined in the same way, no cytoplasmic tubulin-containing structures were seen. Formation of the flagellate cytoskeleton was followed during the differentiation of amebae into flagellates by staining cells with AA-4.3. The first tubulin containing structures were a few cytoplasmic microtubules that formed at the time amebae rounded up into spherical cells. The formation of these microtubules was followed by the appearance of basal bodies and flagella and then by the formation of the CSMT. The CSMT formed before the cells assumed the flagellate shape. In flagellate shaped cells the CSMT radiate from the base of the flagella and follow a curving path the full length of the cell. Protein synthetic requirements for the formation of CSMT were examined by transferring cells to cycloheximide at various times after initiation. One-half the population completed the protein synthesis essential for formation of CSMT 61 min after initiation of the differentiation. This is 10 min after the time when protein synthesis for formation of flagella is completed and 10-15 min before the time when the protein synthesis necessary for formation of the flagellate shape is completed.

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