Allogromia laticollaris, a benthic marine foraminifer, extends numerous trunk filopodia that repeatedly branch, anastomose, and fuse again to form the reticulopodial network (RPN), within which an incessant streaming of cytoplasmic particles occurs. The motion of the particles is saltatory and bidirectional, even in the thinnest filopodia detected by optical microscopy. Fibrils are visible by differential interference microscopy, and the PRN displays positive birefringence in polarized light. These fibrils remain intact after lysis and extraction of the RPN in solutions that stabilize microtubules (MTs). Electron micrographs of thin sections through these lysed and stabilized cytoskeletal models reveal bundles of MTs. The RPNs of living Allogromia may be preserved by standard EM fixatives only after acclimatization to calcium-free seawater, in which the streaming is normal. The MTs in the RPN are typically arranged in bundles that generally lie parallel to the long axis of the trunk and branch filopodia. Stereo electron micrographs of whole-mount, fixed, and critical-point-dried organisms show that the complex pattern of MT deployment reflects the pattern of particle motion in both flattened and highly branched portions of the RPN. Cytoplasmic particles, some of which have a fuzzy coat, are closely associated with, and preferentially oriented along, either single MTs or MT bundles. Thin filaments (approximately 5 nm) are also observed within the network, lying parallel to and interdigitating with the MTs, and in flattened terminal areas of the filopodia. These filaments do not bind skeletal muscle myosin S1 under conditions that heavily decorate actin filaments in controls (human blood platelets), and are approximately 20% too thin to be identified ultrastructurally as F-actin.
Studies on the motility of the foraminifera. I. Ultrastructure of the reticulopodial network of Allogromia laticollaris (Arnold).
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J L Travis, R D Allen; Studies on the motility of the foraminifera. I. Ultrastructure of the reticulopodial network of Allogromia laticollaris (Arnold).. J Cell Biol 1 July 1981; 90 (1): 211–221. doi: https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.90.1.211
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