The appearance of osteoblasts after fixation with OsO4 is described in this paper. They have the basic structures found in other types of cells. The most striking feature is the array of rough-surfaced membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum; this feature is in keeping with the osteoblast's function of producing collagen as the bone grows. The sacs formed by these membranes probably represent the protein-containing granules described by other workers using the light microscope. They contain fine fibrillary material, and similar fibrils are to be found free in the cytoplasm. These fibrils could be tropocollagen units, although fibrils recognizable as collagen by their structure are found only outside the cell. The arrangement of the cell organelles does not seem to be related to the formation of collagen, but correlation of the fine structures of the cells with the histochemical and cytochemical findings in these cells reported by other workers leaves no doubt that they are directly concerned in the production of the organic matrix. It has not been possible to show that osteoblasts influence the passage of calcium or phosphate ions from the blood to the bone matrix.

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