Rotary replication has been adapted to freeze-etching and evaluated using T4 polyheads, erythrocyte ghosts, and chloroplast membranes. Conventional electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and optical diffraction and filtering indicate that platinum-carbon rotary replication renders radially symmetrical contrast and 25 A resolution to freeze-etched specimens so as to clarify subunit structure not normally evident in unidirectional shadow replicas.

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