The gel which forms on warming the extracts of the cytoplasmic proteins of sea urchin eggs has been separated into two fractions, one containing F-actin and the other containing two proteins of 58,000 and 22,000 mol wt. When combined in 0.1 M KCl, even at 0 degrees C, these components will form gel material identical to that formed by warming extracts. This gel is a network of laterally aggregated F-actin filaments which are in register and which display a complex cross-banding pattern generated by the presence of the other two proteins. Low concentrations of calcium block the assembly of these proteins to form this complex structure, which may play some cytoskeletal role in the cytoplasm. This association of F-actin with the other proteins to form a gel is very likely the last step fo the process occurring in warmed extracts. At low temperatures, gelation of extracts is limited by the relative absence of F-actin, as demonstrated by the inability to sediment it at 100,000 g and also by the fact that gelation occurs immediately if exogenous F-actin is added to cold extracts. The transformation of the G-actin present in the extract to the F-form is apparently repressed at low temperatures. This is shown directly by the failure of added G-actin to polymerize at low temperatures in the presence of extract. These observations resemble those which have been reported on preparations from amoeboid cells and may be significant in the involvement of actin and these other proteins in cell division and later developmental processes.

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