Whole blood serum is widely recognized as essential for the growth of diploid cells in culture. Dermal fibroblasts and arterial smooth muscle cells fail to proliferate in culture in the presence of serum derived from platelet-poor plasma. Platelet-poor plasma serum is capable of maintaining monkey arterial smooth muscle cells quiescent in culture at either low (1.5 x 10(3)) or high (2.0 x 10(4)) population densities. The proportion of cell traversing the cell cycle under these conditions was approximately 3%. Equal numbers of quiescent smooth muscle cells initiated DNA synthesis and cell division when treated with whole blood serum or with an equivalent quantity of platelet-poor plasma serum supplemented with a factor(s) derived from a supernate obtained after exposure of human platelets to purified thrombin in vitro.

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