The effect of various antimetabolites on nuclear pore formation was studied in synchronized HeLa S3 cells. The nuclear size was determined by light microscopy and the pore number per unit area of nuclear surface by the freeze-etching technique and electron microscopy. It was found that the inhibition of DNA replication or ribosomal RNA synthesis has no effect on nuclear size increase or pore formation. However, the inhibition of ATP synthesis effectively stops nuclear pore formation. Cycloheximide blocks nuclear pore formation at the same time during G1 phase of the cell cycle when nuclear size increase is blocked by high concentrations of actinomycin D. This suggests that certain proteins or other factors leading to pore formation and nuclear size increase are transcribed and synthesized at about 3–4 h after mitosis, i.e., about 1–2 h before S phase begins.

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