This study is concerned with the fate of the nucleolar contents, particularly nucleolar RNA, during mitosis Mitotic cells harvested from monolayer cultures of Chinese hamster embryonal cells, KB6 (human) cells, or L929 (mouse) cells were allowed to proceed into interphase in the presence or absence (control) of 0.04–0 08 µg/ml of actinomycin D, a concentration which preferentially inhibits nucleolar (ribosomal) RNA synthesis 3 hr after mitosis, control cells had large, irregularly shaped nucleoli which stained intensely for RNA with azure B and for protein with fast green. In cells which had returned to interphase in the presence of actinomycin D, nucleoli were segregated into two components easily resolvable in the light microscope, and one of these components stained intensely for RNA with azure B. Both nucleolar components stained for protein with fast green In parallel experiments, cultures were incubated with 0.04–0 08 µg/ml actinomycin D for 3 hr before harvesting of mitotic cells, then mitotic cells were washed and allowed to return to interphase in the absence of actinomycin D. 3 hr after mitosis, nuclei of such cells were devoid of large RNA-containing structures, though small, refractile nucleolus-like bodies were observed by phase-contrast microscopy or in material stained for total protein. These experiments indicate that nucleolar RNA made several hours before mitosis persists in the mitotic cell and repopulates nucleoli when they reform after mitosis

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