Frog ovarian fragments were prevented from ovulating in vitro by the addition of actinomycin D up to 3 hr following pituitary stimulation; but addition of Actinomycin D 6 hr after stimulation was far less effective. Puromycin, on the other hand, effectively inhibited ovulation when added as late as 6 hr after pituitary stimulation. Although actinomycin D reduced uptake of uridine-3H, and puromycin reduced uptake of leucine-3H and lysine-14 by pituitary-stimulated ovarian tissue minus oocytes (OTMO) in vitro, it was found that pituitary stimulation did not significantly increase uptake of these compounds by OTMO. Radioautographs of ovarian follicles fixed 6 hr after the addition of pituitary extract and uridine-3H in vitro revealed increased RNA synthesis in the peritoneal surface epithelium, compared with unstimulated controls, while the ovarian sac epithelium showed no increase. Gross ultrastructural changes occurred in the peritoneal area of ovarian follicles following pituitary stimulation in vivo, including loss of collagen fibrils, and general disorganization of the connective tissue theca. Changes in the rough endoplasmic reticulum of the peritoneal epithelial cells, while frequently encountered, were less pronounced. None of these changes was observed in the ovarian sac area, or in the interfollicular region. The above data are consistent with the hypothesis that pituitary stimulation of the frog ovary results in increased synthesis of RNA and protein by the peritoneal epithelial cells, and that the protein may be collagenase.