The behavior of nuclear proteins in Amoeba proteus was studied by tritiated amino acid labeling, nuclear transplantation, and cytoplasmic amputation. During prophase at least 77% (but probably over 95%) of the nuclear proteins is released to the cytoplasm. These same proteins return to the nucleus within the first 3 hr of interphase. When cytoplasm is amputated from an ameba in mitosis (shen the nuclear proteins are in the cytoplasm), the resultant daughter nuclei are depleted in the labeled nuclear proteins. The degree of depletion is less than proportional to the amount of cytoplasm removed because a portion of rapidly migrating protein (a nuclear protein that is normally shuttling between nucleus and cytoplasm and is thus also present in the cytoplasm) which would normally remain in the cytoplasm is taken up by the reconstituting daughter nuclei. Cytoplasmic fragments cut from mitotic cells are enriched in both major classes of nuclear proteins, i.e. rapidly migrating protein and slow turn-over protein. An interphase nucleus implanted into such an enucleated cell acquires from the cytoplasm essentially all of the excess nuclear proteins of both classes. The data indicate that there is a lack of binding sites in the cytoplasm for the rapidly migrating nuclear protein. The quantitative aspects of the distribution of rapidly migrating protein between the nucleus and the cytoplasm indicate that the distribution is governed primarily by factors within the nucleus.

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