Persistent nucleoli were studied in Chinese hamster and human long term cultures, human peripheral blood short term cultures, as well as direct bone marrow preparations. No colchicine or hypotonic treatments were applied and the cells were differentially stained with the Feulgen method and light green. Nucleoli were found to persist in the three systems studied, although to a much greater extent in the long term culture. The persistent nucleolar materials were usually in the form of individualized nucleoli mainly at chromosome ends. They also sometimes existed in a fluidlike or dropletlike condition around the chromosomes. Association of acrocentrics in humans and end-to-end associations in hamsters are likely to result from persistence of nucleoli and the possible effects of colchicine and hypotonic treatments that are usually applied. Other phenomena, such as stickiness at metaphase and separation difficulties and fragmentation at anaphase, may result from persistence of nucleoli. Nucleoli were often associated with large chromosomes and sometimes at sites exhibiting faint or clear constrictions. The possibilities of a partial correspondence between sites of persistence and sites of organization, as well as of the organization of nucleolar materials at sites other than the main organizers, are discussed. The persistent nucleoli were not included in daughter nuclei. They either degenerated in the cytoplasm or were eliminated from the cell. The three systems used may represent different intensities of metabolism reflected in the amounts of nucleolar materials built up and the amount that persists.

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