The development of scale cells in insects has been studied from the appearance of the first cytoplasmic projection which forms the scale rudiment. This rudiment contains numerous longitudinally oriented microtubules throughout. Immediately under its outer surface lie a series of adjacent but distinct bundles of longitudinally oriented circa 60-A fibrils with a circa 120-A center-to-center spacing. As the rudiment broadens, the microtubules become distributed near the surface. The rudiment finally becomes extremely broad and flattened. Fibril bundles are now widely separated and equally spaced. They still lie immediately below the cell surface. Then the cytoplasm protrudes midway between each fibril bundle to form longitudinal ridges and the major shape changes of the scale have been achieved. The final pattern can thus be related to the cytoplasmic organization of the rudiment. The main cytoplasmic elements which seem important in scale morphogenesis, on the basis of frequency, orientation and grouping, are 60-A fibrils and microtubules.

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