Changes at the level of cell fine structure have been studied during lens regeneration in the toad, Xenopus laevis, where cornea gives rise to the new lens. The transformation of these cells may be divided into three phases. (1) In the cornea, flattened cells become cuboidal and rough endoplasmic reticulum increases in amount. (2) In the new lens vesicle, cisternae of the rough ER break down into vesicles, smooth-walled vesicles and free ribosomes increase in number, and mitochondria can become enlarged and irregular, then centrally attenuated. Rudimentary cilia form. (3) As new lens fibers form, ribosomes become very numerous and low density fibrous elements and dense clumps appear in the cytoplasm. These phases are accompanied by marked nucleolar changes. The changes during the 3rd phase are similar to changes in the lens during normal development. The first two phases show an unexpected morphological complexity.

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