The urinary bladder of the toad (Bufo marinus) was studied with both the light and the electron microscope. The bladder wall consists of epithelium, submucosa, and serosa. In the epithelium, four different cell types were recognized on the basis of their fine structure and staining properties with several different dyes. These four were designated as granular cells, mitochondria-rich cells, mucous cells, and basal cells. In addition, migratory cells of a different type were found in the basal region of the epithelium. The luminal surface of the epithelial cells presents irregular microvilli and is coated by PAS-positive material which has been further investigated by histochemical procedures and radioautography. Included is a description of the fine structural details of cell membranes, cell junctions, and intracellular components. The submucosa consists of a delicate stroma of fibroblasts and collagen fibers and also contains blood and lymph vessels, unmyelinated nerves, migratory cells, and smooth muscle cells. The serosa consists of a single layer of serosal (mesothelial) cells which form an uninterrupted covering of the viscus. Possible pathways of sodium and water transport across the bladder wall are discussed.

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