In Ochromonas danica and two related species (Chrysophyceae) and in Rhodomonas lens and Cryptomonas sp. (Cryptophyceae), the chloroplast is surrounded by an outer double-membraned envelope which lies outside the usual double-membraned chloroplast envelope. At the borders of the area where the chloroplast lies adjacent to the nucleus, this outer envelope is continuous with the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope as a double-membraned outfolding, so that the entire chloroplast in these species lies within a double-membraned sac, one wall of which is the nuclear envelope. In Olisthodiscus sp. (Chrysophyceae ?), each of the small peripheral chloroplasts is surrounded by a similar double-membraned outer envelope, but in this species no connections with the nuclear envelope were observed. In the Ochromonadaceae, a characteristic array of tubules is present within the sac in the narrow space which separates the chloroplast from the nucleus. In the other species studied, tubules are present at places between the chloroplast envelope and the outer envelope. In the Cryptophyceae, the starch grains lie outside the chloroplast envelope, but within the outer double-membraned sac. A double-membraned outer envelope appears to be present outside the chloroplasts of the Phaeophyta and Euglenophyta, but seems to be absent in the other groups of algae.

This content is only available as a PDF.