Several chemoattractant receptors can support agonist-induced, integrin-dependent arrest of rolling neutrophils in inflamed venules in vivo, as well as subsequent crawling into tissues. It has been hypothesized that receptors of the Galpha(i)-linked chemoattractant subfamilies, especially receptors for chemokines, may mediate parallel activation-dependent arrest of homing lymphocyte subsets. However, although several chemokines can attract subsets of B or T cells, robust chemoattractant triggering of resting lymphocyte adhesion to vascular ligands has not been observed. To study the biology of individual leukocyte chemoattractant receptors in a defined lymphoid environment, mouse L1/2 pre-B cells and/or human Jurkat T cells were transfected with alpha (IL-8 receptor A) or beta (MIP-1alpha/CC-CKR-1) chemokine receptors, or with the classical chemoattractant C5a (C5aR) or formyl peptide receptors (fPR). All receptors supported robust agonist-dependent alpha4beta1 integrin-mediated adhesion of lymphocytes to VCAM-1. L1/2 cells cotransfected with fPR and beta7 integrin were also induced to bind MAdCAM-1, suggesting common mechanisms coupling chemoattractant receptors to activation of distinct integrins. Adhesion was rapid but transient, with spontaneous reversion to unstimulated levels within 5 min after peak binding. When observed under flow conditions, alpha4beta1-mediated arrest occurred within seconds after initiation of contact and rolling of IL-8RA transfectants on VCAM-1/IL-8 co-coated surface; and arrest reversed spontaneously after a mean of 5 min with a return to rolling behavior. Each of the receptors also conferred agonist-specific chemotaxis; however, whereas strong adhesion required simultaneous occupancy of many receptors with maximal responses above the Kd, chemotaxis in each case was suppressed at high agonist concentrations. The findings indicate that alpha and beta chemokine as well as classical chemoattractant receptors can trigger robust adhesion as well as directed migration of lymphoid cells, but that the requirements for and kinetics of adhesion triggering and chemotaxis are distinct, thus permitting their independent regulation. They suggest that the discordance between proadhesive and chemoattractant responses of circulating lymphocytes to many chemokines may reflect quantitative aspects of receptor expression and/or coupling rather than qualitative differences in receptor signaling.
Biology of chemokine and classical chemoattractant receptors: differential requirements for adhesion-triggering versus chemotactic responses in lymphoid cells.
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J J Campbell, S Qin, K B Bacon, C R Mackay, E C Butcher; Biology of chemokine and classical chemoattractant receptors: differential requirements for adhesion-triggering versus chemotactic responses in lymphoid cells.. J Cell Biol 1 July 1996; 134 (1): 255–266. doi: https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.134.1.255
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