By immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization at the electron microscopy level, and by the PCR technique, we have shown that HIV-1 binds and enters normal sperm; that viral particles, their antigens, and nucleic acid are present in sperm from HIV-1 infected men; and that such sperm can transfer HIV-1 like particles to normal human oocytes. We also present evidence that a galactosylceramide-like compound is present on the sperm membrane and could function as an alternative receptor for HIV.
HIV-particles in spermatozoa of patients with AIDS and their transfer into the oocyte
B Baccetti, A Benedetto, AG Burrini, G Collodel, EC Ceccarini, N Crisa, A Di Caro, M Estenoz, AR Garbuglia, A Massacesi, P Piomboni, T Renieri, D Solazzo; HIV-particles in spermatozoa of patients with AIDS and their transfer into the oocyte . J Cell Biol 15 November 1994; 127 (4): 903–914. doi: https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.127.4.903
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