Some properties of rat spleen ribonuclease have been studied, and the intracellular distribution of the enzyme and ribonucleic acid have been presented. Spleen ribonuclease exhibits maximal activity at pH 5.8, and although there is some evidence for the presence of an enzyme with an optimum at pH 7.0, it is not conclusive. The enzyme is concentrated primarily in the mitochondrial fraction, but significant quantities occur in the supernatant fluid. The latter contains ribonuclease inhibitor similar to that found in liver. The effects of whole body x-irradiation, magnesium ion, substrate concentration, type of buffer, presence of p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid, deoxycholate, and Triton X-100 on ribonuclease activity are examined.

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