This paper describes the fine structure and its relationship to the direction of beat in four types of cilia on the gill of the fresh-water mussel Anodonta cataracta. The cilia contain nine outer, nine secondary, and two central fibers, such as have been described previously in other material. Each outer fiber is a doublet with one subfiber bearing arms. One particular pair of outer fibers (numbers 5 and 6) are joined together by a bridge. The two central fibers are enclosed by a central sheath; also present in this region is a single, small mid-fiber. The different groups of fibers are connected together by radial links that extend from the outer to the secondary fibers, and from the secondary fibers to the central sheath. The basal body consists of a cylinder of nine triplet fibers. Projecting from it on one side is a dense conical structure called the basal foot. The cylinder of outer fibers continues from the basal body into the cilium, passing through a complex transitional region in which five distinct changes of structure occur at different levels. There are two sets of fibers associated with the basal bodies: a pair of striated rootlets that extends from each basal body down into the cell, and a system of fine tubular fibers that runs parallel to the cell surface. The relationship between fine structure and direction of beat is the same in all four types of cilia examined. The plane of beat is perpendicular to the plane of the central fibers, with the effective stroke toward the bridge between outer fibers 5 and 6, and toward the foot on the basal body.

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