Anaphase in dividing guard mother cells of Allium cepa and stamen hair cells of Tradescantia virginiana consists almost entirely of chromosome-to-pole motion, or anaphase A. Little or no separation of the poles (anaphase B) occurs. Anaphase is reversibly blocked at any point by azide or dinitrophenol, with chromosome motion ceasing 1-10 min after application of the drugs. Motion can be stopped and restarted several times in the same cell. Prometaphase, metaphase, and cytoplasmic streaming are also arrested. Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone also stops anaphase, but its effects are not reversible. Whereas the spindle collapses in the presence of colchicine, the chromosomes seem to "freeze" in place when cells are exposed to respiratory inhibitors. Electron microscope examination of dividing guard mother cells fixed during azide and dinitrophenol treatment reveals that spindle microtubules are still present. Our results show that chromosome-to-pole motion in these cells is sensitive to proton ionophores and electron transport inhibitors. They therefore disagree with recent reports that anaphase A does not require a continuous supply of energy. It is possible, however, that anaphase does not directly use ATP but instead depends on the energy of chemical and/or electrical gradients generated by cellular membranes.

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