Dynamic presynaptic actin remodeling drives structural and functional plasticity at synapses, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Previous work has shown that actin regulation via Rac1 guanine exchange factor (GEF) Vav signaling restrains synaptic growth via bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced receptor macropinocytosis and mediates synaptic potentiation via mobilization of reserve pool vesicles in presynaptic boutons. Here, we find that Gef26/PDZ-GEF and small GTPase Rap1 signaling couples the BMP-induced activation of Abelson kinase to this Vav-mediated macropinocytosis. Moreover, we find that adenylate cyclase Rutabaga (Rut) signaling via exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) drives the mobilization of reserve pool vesicles during post-tetanic potentiation (PTP). We discover that Rap1 couples activation of Rut-cAMP-Epac signaling to Vav-mediated synaptic potentiation. These findings indicate that Rap1 acts as an essential, convergent node for Abelson kinase and cAMP signaling to mediate BMP-induced structural plasticity and activity-induced functional plasticity via Vav-dependent regulation of the presynaptic actin cytoskeleton.

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