Membrane contact sites (MCSs) serve as a zone for nonvesicular lipid transport by oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP)-related proteins (ORPs). ORPs mediate lipid countertransport, in which two distinct lipids are transported counterdirectionally. How such lipid countertransport controls specific biological functions, however, remains elusive. We report that lipid countertransport by ORP10 at ER–endosome MCSs regulates retrograde membrane trafficking. ORP10, together with ORP9 and VAP, formed ER–endosome MCSs in a phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P)-dependent manner. ORP10 exhibited a lipid exchange activity toward its ligands, PI4P and phosphatidylserine (PS), between liposomes in vitro, and between the ER and endosomes in situ. Cell biological analysis demonstrated that ORP10 supplies a pool of PS from the ER, in exchange for PI4P, to endosomes where the PS-binding protein EHD1 is recruited to facilitate endosome fission. Our study highlights a novel lipid exchange at ER–endosome MCSs as a nonenzymatic PI4P-to-PS conversion mechanism that organizes membrane remodeling during retrograde membrane trafficking.

This article is distributed under the terms of an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike–No Mirror Sites license for the first six months after the publication date (see http://www.rupress.org/terms/). After six months it is available under a Creative Commons License (Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 4.0 International license, as described at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/).
You do not currently have access to this content.