The ESCRT protein CHMP2B and the RNA-binding protein TDP-43 are both associated with ALS and FTD. The pathogenicity of CHMP2B has mainly been considered a consequence of autophagy–endolysosomal dysfunction, whereas protein inclusions containing phosphorylated TDP-43 are a pathological hallmark of ALS and FTD. Intriguingly, TDP-43 pathology has not been associated with the FTD-causing CHMP2BIntron5 mutation. In this study, we identify CHMP2B as a modifier of TDP-43–mediated neurodegeneration in a Drosophila screen. Down-regulation of CHMP2B reduces TDP-43 phosphorylation and toxicity in flies and mammalian cells. Surprisingly, although CHMP2BIntron5 causes dramatic autophagy dysfunction, disturbance of autophagy does not alter TDP-43 phosphorylation levels. Instead, we find that inhibition of CK1, but not TTBK1/2 (all of which are kinases phosphorylating TDP-43), abolishes the modifying effect of CHMP2B on TDP-43 phosphorylation. Finally, we uncover that CHMP2B modulates CK1 protein levels by negatively regulating ubiquitination and the proteasome-mediated turnover of CK1. Together, our findings propose an autophagy-independent role and mechanism of CHMP2B in regulating CK1 abundance and TDP-43 phosphorylation.

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